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Image of Alan Winters13 March 2019

L. Alan Winters CB is Professor of Economics and Director of the UK Trade Policy Observatory.

With Mrs May’s deal again defeated in the House of Commons yesterday evening, Professor L. Alan Winters asks how the UK got to be within 16 days of leaving the EU with no agreed plan for its departure or future relationship with the EU.

In the video ‘Mrs May’s Impasse’ Professor Winters explains how incompatible economic and political agendas and ill-considered red-lines led to the current impasse on Brexit and argues that one or the other has to give if the UK is to avoid ‘No Deal’.

March 13th, 2019

Posted In: UK- EU

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Image of Alan Winters4 December 2019

L. Alan Winters CB is Professor of Economics and Director of the Observatory.

The Prime Minister seems to think that an ‘oven-ready’ Brexit deal is the best that we can choose from the menu of policy alternatives. It sounds neither appetising nor nourishing, but if it really were quick and easy, maybe it would be worth it.

But it’s not quick or easy: ‘oven-ready’ is just not true.

It is true that a Withdrawal Agreement exists and could be put to Parliament in December, but even that is not ready-to-go and passing the Withdrawal Agreement is not the same as Brexit. A couple of examples of how the Withdrawal Agreement is part-baked:

  • The financial settlement (the price tag) is not specified.
  • The Conservative manifesto promises Northern Ireland ‘unfettered access’ to the market in Great Britain. Launching it, two Cabinet Ministers said ‘There will never be any fees or tariffs on goods flowing between Northern Ireland and Great Britain and vice versa … .’ In fact, the Withdrawal Agreement clearly states that many goods flowing between Great Britain and Northern Ireland will face tariffs (at EU levels!) and the Brexit Secretary conceded in Parliament that there would be forms to fill for any goods flowing the other way.

Passing the Withdrawal Agreement and exiting on 31st January 2020, is just the start of a complex negotiation between the UK and the EU, which will be painful, long-lived and probably chaotic.

First, consider the parties.

For the EU, the negotiations will take place under Articles 207 and 218 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU, which govern negotiations with countries outside the EU, and which have a far more demanding process for approval than the Withdrawal Agreement. The member-states have to agree to any deal unanimously and if the deal spreads into areas which are still governed by the States themselves (some services and investment), each will have to go through a ratification process that may involve their national and regional parliaments. The EU’s agreement with Canada, which took seven years to negotiate, was held up for nearly a year because the Wallonian Parliament declined to agree.

On the UK side, there has been no effort to spell out the implications of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) that Mr Johnson wants, let alone the one he will get. For example, Michael Gove claimed on 26th November that because there was effectively no EU Single Market in services, UK services firms will suffer no adverse effects from Brexit with an FTA. Wrong! OECD has shown that EU barriers to service imports from third countries are, on average, four times higher than those between members. Canada failed to get much in services from the EU after seven years negotiating; the same will apply to us.

Second, consider the commitment to get it all done by December 2020. Any deadline puts pressure on both parties, but particularly the one with more at stake (the UK). The default at the end of 2020 is not the status quo but a ‘no deal’ Brexit, so the cliff-edge that plagued the March and October 2019 deadlines will be repeated.

Third, the content: we may agree to keep zero tariffs on all goods, but there will still be border formalities. In order to claim tariff exemptions, UK exporters will have to prove that their goods are substantially made in the UK. Most commentators reckon that together these frictions add perhaps 4% or 5% to the cost of exports. We may be able to negotiate better conditions than average, but not by December.

Worse than tariffs will be regulations.

First, UK exporters will have to prove that their goods meet EU standards. It doesn’t matter that the UK says they do, they have to prove it. Where standards are critical, either the UK government will have to enforce EU regulations throughout the UK (which a Johnson government won’t) or exporters will have to obtain certification from an EU-approved inspection agency. If that task is to be done in the UK, it needs to be negotiated.

If the EU is to give up its tariff protection, it will want to know that UK firms are not obtaining ‘unfair’ competitive advantages through lax labour or environmental rules or through subsidies or violations of competition law. (These are the so-called level-playing field conditions.) The current government clearly hates such constraints, but the EU will not commit to free trade without some such commitments – result impasse. Mr Johnson’s casual suggestion on 29th November that the UK relax EU rules on state-aid to companies will make this doubly difficult.

Finally, there are issues strictly lying outside an FTA, but which will inevitably be bound up with it. For example, whether airlines based in the UK can fly between EU cities and whether EU fishermen get access to UK waters in return for the UK selling its fish in the EU.

You can’t help feeling that it is us, the British public, that is oven-ready, who are going to get ‘done’.

We will have a torrid 2020 deciding what we want of an FTA and a worse time getting even a part of it. Much will remain undone by December 2020, and so the subsequent years will be spent trying to patch up the holes, one-by-one from a position of weakness. The UK will spend five years trying to restore commercial relations with the EU and still end up with something a lot less satisfactory for traders than we have at present.

This blog was first published by Remain United.

The opinions expressed in this blog are those of the author alone and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the University of Sussex or UK Trade Policy Observatory.

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The UK Trade Policy Observatory believes in the free flow of information and encourages readers to cite our materials, providing due acknowledgement. For online use, this should be a link to the original resource on our website. We do not publish under a Creative Commons license. This means you CANNOT republish our articles online or in print for free.

December 4th, 2019

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Erika Szyszczak26 June 2019

Erika Szyszczak is a Research Professor in Law at the University of Sussex and a Fellow of UKTPO

The Dispute Mechanism Systems (DMS) in many trade agreements have lain dormant because countries preferred to use the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its Appellate mechanisms, as the forum to resolve international disputes. This may change in the coming years as the confidence in, and reliability of the WTO, is slowly paralysed by the disruptive attitude of the United States. One question that emerges is whether the use of EU dispute resolution mechanisms offer a faster and clearer approach towards dispute resolution and might serve as a model for future regional trade treaties. (more…)

June 26th, 2019

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Image of Alan Winters3 April 2019

Dr Michael Gasiorek is a Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Sussex and a fellow of the UK Trade Policy Observatory. L. Alan Winters CB is Professor of Economics and Director of the Observatory.

Understandably the politics surrounding the UK’s exit from the EU are dominating current discussions. But the economics of the options still matter, and it is not always evident how well the core economic issues are understood.

In the light of the Government’s ‘approach’ to Labour to find a consensus and in the light of the indicative votes, the aim of this blog is to clearly outline the economic issues and summarise the likely consequences associated with two of the current (indicative) options. (more…)

April 3rd, 2019

Posted In: UK - Non EU, UK- EU

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17 October 2018

Dr Michael Gasiorek is a Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Sussex and a fellow of the UK Trade Policy Observatory.

UK-EU negotiations are in a mess. There appears to be a genuine impasse, where the stumbling block is the issue of no border in Ireland. The EU has indicated it is for the UK to make a better offer, while the UK is arguing that the EU needs to be more reasonable.  Both are right, if they want to avoid ‘no deal’. (more…)

October 17th, 2018

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Briefing Paper 8 – March 2017

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Section 1: Government Procurement After Brexit: The International Context

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February 13th, 2018

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Will Freeports turbo charge the economy? Breakfast on BBC Radio Cumbria, 18 November 2020 (start approx. 2:07:19)

Freeports are economically trivial and politically expensiveFinancial Times, 19 November 2020

Ghana loses faith on UK trade deal, The Telegraph, 15 November 2020

Cost of living gains from Brexit trade deals illusory, say experts, The Independent, 11 November 2020

The freeport con, New Statesman, 10 November 2020

Brexit: Liz Truss secures tariff wins with her Japan trade deal – for products UK doesn’t export, The Independent, 8 November 2020

Searching for value in the Japan–UK trade agreement, East Asia Forum, 3 November 2020

The Japan-UK Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) – Running To Stand Still Or Stepping Stone? Trade Knowledge Exchange, 27 October 2020

Britain and Japan sign post-Brexit trade dealBBC News, 23 October 2020

Cheese seals the deal as UK and Japan sign ‘historic’ trade pactPolitico, 23 October 2020

UK Conservatives ponder global trade rebootPolitico, 22 October 2020

Farming Today: WTO trade rules, feathers for insulation, migrating wild birds and record breaking sheepdogs, BBC Radio 4, 20 October 2020 (starts approx. 07:20)

Hope for low-standard import ban boosted as expert claims it would be WTO compliant, Farmers Guardian, 18 October 2020

Covid 19 highlights need to update pharma supply chains, Chemistry World, 15 October 2020

Brexit will harm trade with the poorest countries, research shows, devex, 14 October 2020

Brexit: Expert reveals chances of getting a deal, Daily Express, 30 September 2020

Quest for trade deals takes Britain into turbulent seasThe Telegraph, 22 September 2020

Angela Merkel issues subtle message to UK with latest no deal warning – ‘Prepare and plan’, The Daily Express, 19 September 2020

Boris Johnson reassured Brexit U-turn to have no ‘long-lasting’ impact on UK reputation, The Daily Express, 13 September 2020

Britain is risking a car-crash Brexit of food shortages, another recession and isolation, CNN Business, 12 September 2020

Badgers, Brexit and a deal for dairy, Farmers Weekly Podcast, 11 September 2020 (starts approx. 2:50)

5 things to know about the UK-Japan trade deal, Politico, 11 September 2020

Britain clinches first major trade deal since leaving the EU, CNN Business, 11 September 2020

Westminster Hour – FreeportsBBC Radio 4, 6 September 2020 (starts approx. 45:00)

Brexit breakthrough: UK set to finalise new trade deal with Japan as soon as NEXT WEEKThe Daily Express, 5 September 2020

Government’s post-Brexit ‘freeport’ scheme tipped to make ‘no material effect’ on UK economyThe New European, 3 August 2020

Rishi Sunak’s freeports plan could hand vital boost to critical UK sector after BrexitThe Express, 3 August 2020

Freeport advantages for business are ‘almost non-existent’Financial Times, 2 August 2020

Mini Cooper Drivers May Face Mighty Shock of New Brexit RulesBloomberg, 30 July 2020

Johnson accused of post-Brexit attack on devolutionChannel 4 News, 22 July 2020

POLITICO Pro Morning Trade UK, Politico, 17 July 2020

Freeports plan will have ‘negligible’ benefit to UK economy, trade experts warnThe Independent, 15 July 2020

Business and politicians wary of UK plan for low-tax trade zonesFinancial Times, 12 July 2020

U.K.’s Global Trade Deals Still Pose a Huge Pre-Brexit ChallengeYahoo! Finance, 7 July 2020

Brexit: Cars produced in Japan to be stamped ‘Made in Britain’ under Boris Johnson’s plansThe Independent, 3 July 2020

DIT to review its trade modelling to strengthen the UK’s hand in future deal negotiationsInstitute of Export & International Trade, 2 July 2020

Quel avenir pour les relations commerciales entre le Royaume-Uni et la Chine? CGTN Francais, 27 June 2020

Brexit trade talks: Clock ticking on promise of global BritainThe Times, 15 June 2020

Boris Johnson faces losing billions if he bans Huawei in the UKThe Telegraph, 13 June 2020

Food standards and ginFarmers Weekly Podcast, 12 June 2020 (starts approx. 03:50)

Brexit: UK borders still not ready for leaving single market at end of year, MPs toldThe Independent, 10 June 2020

A new trade bargain can secure the supplies we need to fight next waveThe Telegraph, 10 June 2020

The UK and EU are facing the most extreme version of Brexit, Financial Times, 7 June 2020

Brexit: Businesses told to expect more bureaucracy and additional costs from January, Irish Times, 5 June 2020

No-deal Brexit holds fewer fears for a Covid-ravaged economyFinancial Times, 4 June 2020

No-Deal Brexit Threat Looms Over Pandemic-Ravaged U.K.Bloomberg, 2 June 2020

Coronavirus and Brexit are a poisonous combination for UK businessFinancial Times, 2 June 2020

Nuts, bolts and bay leaves: UK trade after Brexit, Financial Times, 22 May 2020

London soll zum Singapur an der Themse werdenWirtschafts Woche, 10 May 2020

Britain walks a tightrope in opening trade talks with ChinaThe Telegraph, 5 May 2020

Globalization is Down but Not Out Yet, Wall Street Journal, 28 April 2020

PPE hoarding and lessons from the 2007 food crisisFinancial Times, 27 April 2020

‘Global Britain’ dream threatened by virus nightmare, The Telegraph, 5 April 2020

Coronavirus: Lack of workers ‘could create food shortages’, Brighton Argus, 30 March 2020

The battle to keep supply chains rolling, Financial Times, 26 March 2020

British economy ‘to grow 0.16% at best under US trade dealThe Guardian, 2 March 2020

Inside Business – UK – EU Trade, BBC Sounds, 29 February 2020

UK., EU Gear Up for Thorny Post-Brexit Negotiations, Wall Street Journal, 27 February 2020

Boris Johnson’s Freeport Idea Is Full of Holes, Yahoo! Finance, 26 February 2020

Brexit Britain’s freeport utopia isn’t about free trade, or portsWired, 25 February 2020

Sunak gets ready to do a reverse OsborneThe Sunday Times, 23 February 2020

Brexit: How do you negotiate a trade agreement?BBC News, 21 February 2020

BBC Politics South East – Free Ports Boost or Bust? BBC One South East, 17 February 2020 (starts approx. 21:05)

Brexit: Ministers refuse to release secret studies believed to show little gain from trade deals with US and Asia, The Independent, 15 February 2020

How would free ports work in the UK? The Times, 10 February 2020

EU clamps down on free ports over crime and terrorism links, The Guardian, 10 February 2020

UK faces long road in ‘ambitious’ post-Brexit trade push into AsiaNikkei Asian Review, 6 February 2020

Where a Brexit Trade Deal Matters Most to Boris JohnsonBloomberg, 4 February 2020

Brexit and Fishing RightsBBC Politics South East, 2 February 2020 (starts approx. 9 mins)

Post-Brexit Britain may find trade deals hard to negotiateThe Economist, 1 February 2020

Brexit is here. What’s next for fashion?Vogue Business, 31 January 2020

Interview: Checks in Irish Sea might make Northern Ireland “unattractive” for tradeXinhua News, 30 January 2020

What is a free port?Port Technology, 30 January 2020

UK to outpace Europe in trade growth this year, US seen as top market for SMEsGlobal Trade Review, 22 January 2020

Britain languishes behind EU in battle for African tradeFinancial Times, 20 January 2020

Boris Johnson’s £60bn services deal dilemmaFinancial Times, 13 January 2020

Government free port plans are pointless says Sussex expertThe Argus, 3 January 2020


Can new free trade deals compensate for the loss of frictionless trade with the EU? BBC Newsnight, 11 December 2019 (starts approx. 5:30)

Brexit: Free trade deals ‘won’t offset leaving EU’, BBC News, 11 December 2019

Boris Johnson misleading public over impact of his ‘unlawful’ Brexit deal, trade experts warn, The Independent, 10 December 2019

Study says US trade deal is risk to Union, The Times, 10 December 2019

Boris Johnson under scrutiny over Irish Sea border claims, Financial Times, 9 December 2019

NHS data is a goldmine. It must be saved from big tech, The Guardian, 9 December 2019

US could get access to UK health data, experts warnThe BMJ, 7 December 2019

The truth about whether Boris Johnson is misleading voters over his Brexit dealThe Independent, 6 December 2019

Unrealistic election pledges will leave the UK disappointedFinancial Times, 5 December 2019

Professor L. Alan Winters on the Brexit timelines of the Conservatives and LabourBBC News at 10, 4 December 2019 (starts approx. 22 mins)

US tech firms want access to £10bn NHS health dataThe Times, 2 December 2019

Tories claim Brexit deal would not mean Irish sea admin – but expert says that’s wrong, News Letter, 28 November 2019

Boris Johnson’s ‘arbitrary’ Brexit deadline will damage UK economy, say trade experts, The Telegraph, 27 November 2019

‘That’s completely wrong’: Michael Gove falsely claims EU has no single market for services, The Independent, 26 November 2019

Brexit: Tariffs on 60% of goods entering NI from GBBBC News, 16 November 2019

Brexit ‘could mean border checks between England, Scotland and Wales’The Independent, 5 November 2019

Post-Brexit trade with Northern Ireland may survive systemic abuseFinancial Times, 31 October 2019

What does Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal mean for UK business? The Telegraph, 17 October 2019

This deal doesn’t get Brexit done – it’s just the end of the beginningThe Telegraph, 17 October 2019

Prof L. Alan Winters on the Prime Minister’s proposal for Northern IrelandtalkRADIO, 6 October 2019 (starts approx. 11:33am)

What one day’s imports and exports tell us about Britain’s trade with the worldiNews, 29 September 2019

Brexit threatens food regulations, The Ecologist, 11 September 2019

Govt has ‘clear path’ to water down food regulation, experts warn, Farming UK, 11 September 2018

Would free ports help a post-Brexit Britain? Raconteur, 9 September 2019

How the devaluation of the pound has affected British business – for better and for worse, The Telegraph, 8 September 2019

The EU has signed trade deals covering half a billion civilians since Brexit, The London Economic, 26 August 2019

Germany Has Told Britain Its Food Producers Might Not Bother Exporting To It After A No-Deal Brexit, Buzzfeed, 22 August 2019

Brexit has chilling effect on UK inward investment, Financial Times, 21 August 2019

Lidl lines up suppliers to cover no-deal costs, BBC News, 18 August 2019

Nearly 1,000 jobs are on the line in Inverclyde if there is a ‘no-deal’ Brexit, Greenock Telegraph, 16 August 2019

‘No deal’ could cost 1,100 West Fife jobs says MP, Dunfermline Press, 15 August 2019

How a no-deal Brexit threatens your weekly food shop, The Guardian, 13 August 2019

As the U.S.-China trade war rages, an even bigger battle with Europe is brewing, Marketplace, 12 August 2019

What free ports can and can’t achieve, The Economist, 8 August 2019

As UK accelerates post-Brexit freeport plans, Truss takes lessons from U.S., Reuters, 8 August 2019

The UK food industry wants a pause in antitrust law to tackle Brexit food shortages, CNBC, 7 August 2019

Good Morning Scotland – UK-US Trade Deal, BBC Radio Scotland, (starts approx. 2:09:30), 6 August 2019

UK hopes for quick US trade deal are pie in Brexit sky, The Irish Times, 2 August 2019

UK plans to create up to 10 freeports to boost post-Brexit trade, Reuters, 1 August 2019

From ‘Blade Runner’ to Brexit in England’s industrial north, Politico, 1 August 2019

The Today Programme – Post-Brexit Free Ports, BBC Radio 4, (starts approx. 49mins) 1 August 2019

Good Morning Scotland – No deal and the backstop, BBC Radio Scotland, (starts approx. 1hr 40mins), 30 July 2019

Deadlock on Brexit may mean economy is already in recession, top forecaster warns, The Telegraph, 22 July 2019

UKTPO Report Outlines Trade Winners & Losers, Bloomberg, 18 July 2019

No-deal Brexit will cost £22bn a year to compensate businesses, landmark analysis reveals, The Independent, 14 July 2019

Brexit will decimate UK services exports – but remarkably clueless politicians would rather remain silent, The Independent, 8 July 2019

Will Boris Johnson’s free-trade zones actually boost the economy post-Brexit?The Independent, 7 July 2019

What is a free port? All you need to know about the free-trade zonesThe Guardian, 6 July 2019

Experts sceptical on Johnson’s plans for regional freeportsFinancial Times, 5 July 2019

What are ‘free ports’ and would they boost post-Brexit trade?The Week, 2 July 2019

An economist’s view on key Brexit claims, The Times, 26 June 2019

UK accused of ‘silently eroding’ EU pesticide rules in Brexit laws, The Guardian, 12 June 2019

Interview: U.S.-UK trade deal unlikely to happen in foreseeable future: expert, Xinhua News, 11 June 2019

South Korea agrees deal with UK for post-Brexit trade, Financial Times, 10 June 2019

Brexit uncertainty drives investment boost for other EU countries, Financial Times, 10 June 2019

Experts are sceptical about a UK-US trade deal amid Brexit and China uncertainty, The National, 6 June 2019

Would a trade deal with Trump boost Brexit Britain? Financial Times, 4 June 2019

UK hopes trade deal with US could soften Brexit blow, Deutsche Welle, 4 June 2019

The maths of a trade deal with Trump do not add up, The Telegraph, 3 June 2019

Turkey shows Britain that a customs union can hurt, Politico, 16 May 2019

Researchers fear ‘watered down’ UK pesticide legislation, Farming UK, 15 May 2019

The future of Britain’s automotive industry, Prospect Magazine, 14 May 2019

How is Brexit affecting FDI into Britain? The Economist, 9 May 2019

BREXIT BOMBSHELL: Brussels now MORE committed to EU exit than UK – claims lawyer, The Express, 4 May 2019

Why May’s and Corbyn’s Brexit plans could harm UK citiesYahoo! Finance, 22 April 2019

We must not compromise on our free market after Brexit divorce, The Telegraph, 7 April 2019

May’s deal has sacrificed services as price of ending free movement, The Times, 4 April 2019

May-Corbyn customs union is constitutional nonsense and a total victory for Brussels, The Telegraph, 3 April 2019

What is the trade advantage of being in a customs union with the EU? BBC Radio 4 Today Programme, 2 April 2019 (Starts 23.26)

Are the new trade deals quite what they seem? Newsnight, 28 March 2019 (starts 25.30)

Brexit: Rolled-over UK free trade deals ‘are incomplete’, BBC News, 28 March 2019

EU warns no-deal Brexit is ‘increasingly likely’, Financial Times, 25 March 2019

No-deal Brexit ‘to send exports tumbling by 20%’, says Sussex University’s UK Trade Policy Observatory, The Sunday Times, 24 March 2019

Uncle Sam’s trade deals are a game of chicken, The Sunday Times, 17 March 2019

Promises of new trade freedoms after Brexit are unlikely to be met, The Times, 16 March 2019

Most imports tariff-free under no-deal plan, BBC News, 13 March 2019

U.K. puts forward trade plans for no-deal Brexit, Global News, 13 March 2019

Britain’s trade gap widens as exports to EU fall, City A.M., 12 March 2019

Slashing Tariffs Won’t Redeem a No-Deal Brexit, Bloomberg, 9 March 2019

No-deal Brexit would take back control and hand it to Trump, experts say, The Independent, 6 March 2019

EU and U.S. officials meet to talk trade, Marketplace Podcast, 5 March 2019

How would a no-deal Brexit affect the UK economy? Financial Times, 4 March 2019

What could happen to food prices after Brexit? BBC News, 1 March 2019

How Brexit Could Damage Asian And African Economies, Global Finance, 1 March 2019

Free ports would deliver ‘limited’ economic boost to Grimsby, say economists, Grimsby Telegraph, 1 March 2019

After a no-deal Brexit, should Britain abolish all tariffs? The Economist, 28 February 2019

Honda, Brexit and the collapse of Japan’s love affair with the UK, Wired, 24 February 2019

‘Taking back control’ of UK agriculture clearly includes the right to be stupid, Financial Times, 21 February 2019

Honda to Shut Plant in Brexit-Shaken Britain, The New York Times, 19 February 2019

Honda’s U.K. plant closure adds to rising Brexit worries, CBS News, 19 February 2019

Honda to Shut Plant in Brexit-Shaken Britain, The Washington Post, 19 February 2019

Honda’s announcement that it will close its Swindon plant in 2021, BBC Radio Ulster (starts at 52.50 mins) 19 February 2019

Honda’s announcement that it will close its Swindon plant in 2021, BBC Radio Foyle (starts at 1hr 48) 19 February 2019

Brexit: What trade deals has the UK done so far?BBC News, 14 February 2019

Brexit: This is how many people could lose their jobs in each area of Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry Telegraph, 13 February 2019

What are WTO terms and how will they affect the UK in the event of a no-deal Brexit? ITV news, 11 February 2019

Stephen Morgan: Getting Brexit right for Portsmouth International Port is vital, The House, 5 February 2019

How can the UK continue trading on current terms with third countries covered by EU trade deals? The Independent, 3 February 2019

What are World Trade Organisation terms and what exactly do they mean? The Independent, 29 January 2019

Brexit: How many trade deals has the UK done? BBC News, 25 January 2019

It’s a Cruel World for U.K. Companies Weighing No-Deal Brexit, Bloomberg, 25 January 2019

How badly could Brexit disrupt agricultural exports from Northern Ireland? The Independent, 22 January 2019

Dani Garavelli: Like a mob ready to take to the streets if thwarted, The Scotsman, 19 January 2019

How to run a new Brexit referendum and disappoint everyone, The Economist, 16 January 2019

Britons Most at Risk in a Messy Split From EU Are Least Worried, The Wall Street Journal, 13 January 2019




(articles in bold authored by UKTPO members)

December 15th, 2016

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