Keep calm and manage impulsivity

By Aleksandra Herman

Have you ever gone grocery shopping to get some bread and milk, and you found yourself leaving the shop with a bag full of items that you never intended (and needed) to buy? Or maybe you’ve committed to keeping a diet, but found it impossible to resist another helping of that delicious chocolate cake? Or perhaps instead of analysing all available information before making an important decision, you tend to make a choice on impulse?

We all behave impulsively, to some extent, on a daily basis. Sometimes, acting impulsively is harmless or even advantageous, for example when there is little time to react, or when the matter is of little importance (e.g. ‘what am I having for dinner tonight?’). Keeping a healthy balance is important though: Too much impulsivity leads to negative consequences and has been associated, among other things, with alcohol abuse, addictions, overeating or dangerous sexual behaviours (e.g. unprotected sex). Increased levels of impulsivity are also characteristic features of certain neuropsychiatric conditions such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).  Read more ›

Tagged with: , ,
Posted in PhD research, Research

Final Year “Retreat” Programme 2018-19

It’s back and it’s bigger and better than ever – drawing on student feedback from the January and September 2017 events, we’ve put together 3 events over your final year to provide extra support on careers, wellbeing, and the dissertation. Find out more and sign up below!

Our Third Year Retreat started as a two day event in 2016-17, as a response to student requests for more support on dissertations, careers and a chance to (maybe) see faculty as human beings. The events and sessions aren’t planned or structured like regular teaching – but aim to stimulate your thinking and support your development. It’s proved popular with students who have taken years abroad or in industry, as well as with students on our regular BSc programme.

This year, we’ve taken the most popular and useful events from our previous sessions, and put them at just the right times of year for you. You can sign up for either or both of the full day events (in Induction and Inter-session week). You’ll find the Week 5 event timetabled into your SussexDirect timetable – that’s because we want everyone to join us, because the ethics session is so important for your dissertation.

You can sign up for the Induction week and Inter-session week events via the link below. The deadline for signing up for the Induction Week event is July 6th 2018, so please do sign up!

All of the events are FREE to Psychology final year students, including the food and drink! All events are currently planned to be held on campus, to make sure they are as accessible for students (with the exception of dinner in town in February!).

Sign up here:


If you have any questions, or aren’t sure about signing up, please email Dr. Megan Hurst ( – our final year retreat co-ordinator.


Provisional Programme of Events

Friday 21st September, Induction Week

Get your year off to a flying start, with an early dose of dissertation support, productivity tips, and guidance from Careers about how to make the most of your final year.

  • Productivity tricks for your final year – a workshop delivered by someone who actually uses lots of them!
  • Planning and Resourcing Your Dissertation – get some helpful hints on starting your dissertation, planning your time for the year, and learn about support in the School & beyond
  • Managing Your Supervisor – how to have an effective and positive working relationship with your dissertation supervisor
  • Transferable Skills from your Degree, with Careers – what are they, why are they important, and how can you show employers that you have them?

This day includes tea and coffee throughout the day, lunch, and a casual afternoon tea with faculty to end the day.


Wednesday 24th October, Week 5

Deadlines are coming – for the ethics for the dissertation, and for lots of graduate schemes and post-grad applications. But don’t fear, we’ve put together an afternoon of sessions to support you with both, and help you stop procrastinating!

  • Ethics for the Dissertation – clarity on the ethics process, from the people who review your applications. Learn to identify the key ethical issues in your research and how to do ethical problem solving
  • Marketing Your Skills to Employers – building on the Transferrable Skills workshop, and supporting you in completing graduate scheme or post-graduate study applications
  • Procrastination and Wellbeing – run by our in-house expert on self-regulation, Dr. Eleanor Miles! Learn tips and strategies for stopping procrastination and being more productive

This afternoon includes tea and coffee, and a drinks reception afterwards with faculty and fellow students.


Friday 1st February, Inter-Session Week

Our third and final Retreat event. Start thinking about your write-up, and how the marker is going to read it with support from experts in the department, and polish up your self-presentation skills.

  • Telling the Story of Your Research – one of our most useful sessions, as rated by previous students. A session on how to transform your dissertation into an epic tale of heroism… or at least a coherent one.
  • Q&A with a Supermarker – learn from our supermarkers how the dissertations are marked and what they’re looking for in this session.
  • Making a Plan of Attack: Dealing with your Dissertation Data –Jennifer Mankin will be providing guidance on how to plan your analysis for your dissertation.
  • Presenting Yourself with Confidence – a session on how to wow prospective employers, with presentation and interviewing skills, run by Careers.

This day includes tea and coffee throughout the day, lunch, and a meal out in town with faculty.


Tagged with: , , ,
Posted in Undergraduate

Depression and Cognitive Ageing

By Amber John

Depression is a common mental health problem which is experienced by people of all ages. It is estimated that each year around 1 in 5 people in the UK will experience depressive symptoms. Depression encompasses lots of different kinds of symptoms which can range from mild to severe. This can include psychological symptoms (such as a continuous low mood, feelings of hopelessness and guilt and lacking motivation), physical symptoms (such as changes in sleeping patterns, weight and appetite changes, and loss of energy), and social symptoms (such as withdrawal from friends and family, or underperforming at school or work). For more information on recognising symptoms of depression, follow this link to the NHS website, which can describe this in more depth:

There is some evidence to suggest that depression may be linked with poorer physical, mental, and cognitive outcomes later in life. For example, scientists have previously reported that experiencing depression may be related to an increased risk of stroke, diabetes and early mortality. Researchers have also previously shown a link between depression in older adulthood and dementia. However, we do not yet know whether depression can lead to a faster cognitive decline in a population of individuals without dementia. The aim of our study was to test whether there is comprehensive evidence for the effect of depression on cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older adults.



We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies investigating the link between depression or anxiety and decline in cognitive function in people without dementia. In total, evidence from 34 studies and more than 71,000 participants was combined and synthesised. There were 32 studies looking at depression and cognitive decline; and 5 studies looking at anxiety and cognitive decline (Three of these studies assessed both depression and anxiety).


Our results suggest that people diagnosed with clinical depression are more likely to experience a faster cognitive decline over time than people without depression (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05–1.76, p = 0.02). We also found that people who do not have a formal diagnosis of depression but have elevated depressive symptoms are also more likely to show greater cognitive decline than people with lower depressive symptoms (B =−0.008, 95% CI −0.015 to −0.002, p = 0.012). There was mixed evidence regarding the link between anxiety and cognitive decline. Our results highlight the importance of protecting mental health in order to safeguard against cognitive decline in later life, particularly as our populations are ageing rapidly and the number of older adults living in our society is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades. For more information about this study you can access the publication online: or see the infographic.



Not everyone with depression will show faster cognitive decline. There are lots of other important factors which may play into the rate at which we age, such as genetic factors, education level, sleeping patterns, and diet. As there are so many other important factors which play a role in predicting cognitive health in older age, it is not inevitable that people with depression will experience poorer cognitive outcomes. Taking measures to manage and protect mental health and wellbeing may also help to support cognitive health in older adulthood. Some actions which can be taken to help protect mental health and wellbeing include:

  1. Practicing mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness meditation can be accessed using freely available websites and apps, such as Headspace (
  2. Maintaining a good work-life balance. Advice on how to stay well at work can be accessed on the following link:
  3. Maintaining social connections with others. Strong social networks with loved ones can foster important social relationships and protect against feelings of isolation and loneliness. See the following guidance for opening up to friends and family about your mental health:


Also see our video below which describes a couple of practical steps that can be taken to protect mental health and wellbeing:



If you think you may be experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety or any other mental health condition, it is important to talk to your GP who will be able to offer more tailored advice for you. See online guidance from MIND, a leading mental health charity, on seeking help for a mental health problem.

If you are worried about loved one or believe they may be experiencing a mental health problem, further online support can be found through the MIND website.

See the link below for a list of useful contacts if you need further information or support in relation to your mental health:


Amber is doing her PhD with Dr Darya Gaysina at the EDGE Lab.

Tagged with: , , ,
Posted in PhD research, Research

The dangers of over-hyping ‘sugar addiction’.

By Jenny Morris


Sugar seems to be frequently vilified in the media. Just a quick google search and headlines report ‘Sugar can destroy your brain’‘Sugar is as addictive as cocaine’ and ‘Sugar addiction ‘should be treated as a form of drug abuse’. It’s frequently referred to as an addictive drug, which supports people who build successful careers out of teaching people to avoid the perils of sugar. But how well founded are these claims and should you really cut sugar out of your diet?

Firstly, it’s important to understand that we absolutely need sugar in our diets. Glucose is an essential substance for cell growth and maintenance. The brain accounts for only 2% of our body weight yet uses approximately 20% of glucose derived energy, it’s vital to consume sugar to support basic cognitive functions. Disruption of normal glucose metabolism can have dangerous effects, resulting in pathological brain function. Yet there is concern that overconsumption may lead to a multitude of adverse health effects.

Is it addictive?

The impact of sugar on the brain is partly what has led many people to compare sugar to an addictive drug. Indeed, there are similarities, sugar activates the reward network which reinforces intake. It’s been suggested that ingesting an addictive drug hijacks this reward network and causes addiction. When people mention the reward pathway they are referring to the effect of dopamine on the pathway from the ventral tegmentum (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens and the effect of opioids in the amygdala and VTA. Dopamine underlies ‘wanting’ of an addictive substance whereas opioids underlie ‘liking’. Wanting causes the motivation to find and consume the substance, dopamine can be released in anticipation which increases craving, whereas liking is the enjoyment of actual consumption.

Our preference for sweetness is the only taste we have an innate preference for and can be seen in newborn babies. This is adaptive because it signals the food is likely to be high in calories and therefore valuable, at least in the environment we evolved in where food was hard to find. However, our environment is now full of food cues and feeding opportunities so our natural preference for sweetness is now counterproductive. These cues increase the likelihood of craving and consumption, like in drug addiction. Addicts show a biased attention towards cues related to their addictive substance, this is usually measured as being quicker to detect them and finding it harder to ignore them. This is also seen with food in those who are obesehungry or have problematic eating behaviours. In our obesogenic environment this is an issue as food cues are so frequently encountered.

Our obesogenic environment offers temptations at every turn (CC0)

Despite the potential common mechanisms, addictive behaviours such as increased tolerance and withdrawal syndrome have not been seen in humans (Which the exception of a single case study). Instead most of the research is based on animal models. ‘Sugar addiction’ can be seen in rats, but only when they are given intermittent access, this causes sugar bingeing and anxiety which might be evidence of withdrawal symptoms (although this could also be caused by hunger). This addictive behaviour is not seen in rats given free 24-hour access to sugar, even in those preselected to have a sugar preference. Given that free access is most like our own environment, this evidence is not particularly compelling. Furthermore, you get similar effects when using saccharin (artificial sweetener), so addictive behaviours are more likely caused by the rewarding sweet taste rather than at a chemical level. This makes sense when you consider self-confessed ‘sugar-addicts’ tend to crave sweet foods such as chocolate, cake and doughnuts, not sugar in its purest form.

Whilst these foods are likely to be high in sugar, they are also high in fat as well as other nutrients. (CC0)


Issues with evidence?

A further issue with claims of ‘sugar addiction’ is that claims are difficult to test. One problem is that human diets are varied, which makes it difficult to isolate the effect of sugar. Effects are usually confounded with lifestyle factors and other nutrients commonly found in the “Western diet” such as fat. If you try to list some high sugar foods, you’ll probably find these are also high in fat. Therefore, studies investigating the overall western diet do not provide compelling evidence for a direct causal link between sugar and negative health outcomes. To directly test this, we would need to put a sample of participants on a high sugar (controlling for all other dietary and lifestyle factors) diet for an extended period time. For obvious practical and ethical reasons, this is not possible (ethical boards tend to object to experiments where you intentionally damage the health of participants).

Therefore, we use animal models, which go some way in addressing this issue as sugar can be isolated more effectively. However, animal studies are also subject to criticism, as models are created from them to demonstrate the effects of sugar in the brain, but they do not necessarily translate to complex human behaviour in the real world. For example, humans can compensate for sugar compensation by choosing less sugary foods later, whereas rats in a controlled environment do not have this option.

How similar do you think your behaviour is to this guy? (CC0)

Brain imaging studies are another popular method to study the short-term effects of sugar on cognition. There is no shortage of articles describing how the brain ‘lights up’ or is ‘flooded with dopamine’ in response to sugar, like the patterns of activation seen in response to addictive drugs. However, we also see the same patterns in response to listening to musicdrawing doodles and cars, but we don’t think these things are addictive. It’s also important to realise fMRI is only measuring increased blood flow to those areas, not neural activity, so the information we get from them is limited. Brain imaging studies provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of behaviour, but the results should not be overstated.

Negative consequences of vilifying sugar

The issue with vilifying one specific substance is that it causes people to adopt overly restrained diets. Restrained eating is an issue because it is frequently linked to diet breakdown, overeating and weight fluctuation. Tightly controlled diets involve a large amount of self-control, which usually fail and result in disinhibited eating. Making a food forbidden increases craving and overeating of that food, particularly in restrained eaters. The breakdown of restraint often causes guilt and leads to an unhealthy psychological relationship with food. In contrast, intuitive eating/flexible dietary control is associated with improved psychological well-being and lower BMI.

Whilst there is no evidence to support ‘sugar addiction’ it’s been suggested that a better term might be ‘eating addiction’. This term would describe the behavioural symptoms of loss of control, intense craving and overconsumption, rather than the substance-based addiction. The criteria for addiction in the most recent version of the DSM-5 (a diagnostic manual for clinicians) has been extended to account for non-substance-based addictions, such as gambling. However, there is concern that the term addiction implies that the behaviour is uncontrollable, which would undermine dieting attempts. Furthermore, there is some evidence that belief in ‘food addiction’ increases food consumption, particularly in those who self-identify as an addict.

To summarise, the causes of obesity are complex and cannot be reduced to a single substance. A combination of biological and psychological influences are involved, and to complicate matters further, the relative power of different factors differ between people. It would be more convenient if we could blame the multitude of potential health issues on sugar consumption, but at present there is no strong evidence to support this argument. Finally, over-hyped headlines and advice to cut sugar out of our diet completely is potentially harmful to our attempts to make positive changes to our diets and achieve long term health goals.


Jenny Morris is a PhD student with Prof Martin Yeomans and Dr Sophie Forster. Her research involves cognitive psychology and behavioural methods to test the mechanisms of distraction induced over-eating. This post was originally published in Jenny’s research blog.

Tagged with: , ,
Posted in PhD research, Research

An appetite for bringing research into practice at ResearchED

By Ian Hadden

ResearchED is getting big. A ‘grassroots movement’ started by a former teacher, it aims to bridge the gap between research and practice in education. Since I’m researching how simple, well-timed social psychological interventions can help kids from low-income families thrive at school, I went along to their London event last September see what it was all about. That is, me and an awful lot of other delegates. On a Saturday. Standing room only.

There were some well-known names, but the main draw was the hundred-or-so school practitioners, educational policymakers and academics who presented parallel sessions in seven slots throughout the day.

The impressive Eleanor Stringer and Elena Rosa Brown of the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) was my first slot. The EEF has some chunky money to commission research into improving outcomes for kids from low-income families, and I took away two pieces of good news. Firstly, they’ve recently begun to expand their focus to cover well-being and non-cognitive skills as well as their original aim of increasing educational attainment. I think this is good news for everyone, and of special interest to me as one of my areas of research is looking at how non-cognitive skills can drive not only educational attainment but also employability. Secondly, they told us that a new focus for them is packaging academic research in ways that are of practical use in schools using guidance reports. They’re aware that this is a big challenge and it’s very positive that they’re starting on the journey.

Three other slots were highlights for me.

Firstly, Stephen Gorard of the University of Durham gave some shocking examples of poor education research that had somehow found their way into peer-reviewed journals. While he offered a handy guide to sifting the solid from the flaky, the talk underlined the need for trusted intermediaries between research and practice – organisations like the EEF and TES.

Secondly, Carl Hendrick and Robin MacPherson from Wellington College highlighted practical evidence-based ideas for effective teaching: Barak Rosenshine’s principles of instruction and Robert Bjork’s desirable difficulties were the standouts for me that I need to look into. The emphasis, in this talk and more generally in the conference, was on the cognitive side (dual coding, cognitive load etc.), and I see opportunities for social psychology to get more of a profile in future conferences.

Finally, Robin Launder worked the audience like a pro with Theo Wubbels’ research into teacher-student relationships, ending on a high with a video of Ian Wright meeting an inspirational teacher from his schooldays. Eyes welled, mine included.

ResearchED might not be widely known, but it seems to me that it’s generating valuable debate in two of education’s big challenges: how can practitioners and policymakers identify high quality relevant research, and how can they then apply it to classroom practice? These are tough questions, and ones to which our team here at Sussex is focused on making a contribution within our field of social psychology.

To finish, a nice practical tip. According to Carl Hendrick, one teacher asked Dylan Wiliam about his advice that feedback should be more work for the receiver than for the giver. “How does that work in practice with maths homework?” Wiliam’s answer: don’t mark what’s right and what’s wrong, instead tell the student how many answers are wrong and ask them to figure out which ones.

Now that sounds like a great recipe for developing high-quality researchers for the next generation.


Ian Hadden is a doctoral researcher looking at how simple, well-timed social psychological interventions can help school students from low-income families see school as a place where they belong and can thrive. The interventions aim to help students reframe everyday experiences as normal, rather than evidence that “kids like me” don’t belong in school

Tagged with: ,
Posted in Uncategorized

Meet your PGR Student Reps (2017-2018)

This year’s PGR student reps: Jo, Lina and Toni



I’m currently in the first year of my PhD, working on the brain-body interaction in associative learning and consciousness. My main motivation to become a PGR rep was the importance of community in postgrad life, and ensuring that everyone feels part of a group despite working individually for the vast majority of time. I’ve also become involved with the Doctoral School driven PGR wellbeing and mental health initiative, so please let me know if you have any ideas or comments. I’ll do anything for cats and chocolate 🙂


My PhD is focused on corruption, collective action, and social change. I did my Bachelors in Psychology at Bristol and then a Masters in Cognitive Neuroscience here at Sussex a couple of years ago. I love eating pizza.


I’m Toni, I’m a first year PhD student and I’m investigating the relationship between parenting, children’s experience of risk and challenge and their emotional wellbeing. I’ve been one of the PGR student reps since October 2017. Having just moved down to Brighton from Glasgow in time to start my PhD here, I decided to put myself forward for student rep as a fast track method of getting to know everyone and settling into life in the department. It’s worked a treat so far! J


Our job as Student Reps

Though it might sound generic, our genuine aim as Reps is to help develop a strong collegial atmosphere within which everyone feels supported, and importantly not alone, as we believe this can benefit both wellbeing and productivity. Our infamous surveys are geared at trying to get your input so that we can collectively shape the PhD experience, and we still have a live survey where you can always make comments, either anonymously or not.

Another important part of our job as reps is to ensure that we have plenty of opportunities to get out of our offices and let our hair down together. So far in this academic year, some of you might have joined the Halloween Special, where we watched Beetlejuice with some spooky snacks, the fabulous Christmas party, recent post-AwayDay drinks, or the odd Friday evening at the Falmer Bar.

So far so good! It’s been great fun organising and hosting our socials and getting to know some fellow PhD students. And of course we’ve got more socials lined up for this term! We’re hoping to organise a rather adventurous outing around Easter time that may or may not involve being shot at with paint? So keep an eye out for that! We’ll hopefully have some more details in late February. And then of course there will be the summer BBQ.

We’re also keen to keep up ‘Falmer Fridays’ and there’s usually a few of us enjoying a well-earned pint at the end of the week, so feel free to pop along. We’re here to represent the Psych PGR students, so if you have any ideas for social events you’d like us to organise, please send them our way!

Tagged with: , , , ,
Posted in Uncategorized

How hate crime affects a whole community

This article was originally published by the BBC on 12th January 2018.

Thousands of people are physically and sometimes brutally attacked each year in hate crimes. Such offences not only affect the victims, but also the thoughts and behaviour of others.

Within 24 hours of the massacre of 49 people at a gay nightclub in Orlando, protests and vigils were joined by thousands in London, Sydney, Hong Kong, Bangkok and many other cities around the world. Although a particularly stark example, the response shows how the effects of hate crime are not limited to the immediate victims: they also affect others who learn of such events.

Prof Rupert Brown presenting at the Sussex Hate Crime Project launch.

Over the past five years, the Hate Crime Project at the University of Sussex has investigated these wider impacts of hate crime, looking at how simply knowing a victim, or even hearing about an incident, can have significant consequences. Many such attacks take place: in England and Wales, for example, the number of hate crimes recorded by police has increased sharply, rising 29%, to more than 80,000, in 2016-17. Race hate crimes were most common, but victims might also be targeted because of their sexual orientation, religion, disability, or because they are transgender.

The University of Sussex project used studies, experiments and interviews with a total of more than 1,000 Muslim and 2,000 LGBT people in the UK to investigate the indirect effects of such crimes. It found that four out of five participants knew someone who had been victimised in the past three years, with about half knowing someone who had been physically assaulted. As a result of hearing about hate crime in their community, the most common responses were anger, anxiety and feelings of vulnerability.

These emotional reactions had a significant impact on both LGBT and Muslim participants’ feelings of safety. Many said they took steps to increase their own security and avoided parts of their neighbourhood where they thought an attack was likely. Others joined community support groups. One Muslim woman described how she had responded to reports of Islamophobic hate crimes, including the murder of 82-year-old Mohammed Saleem, who was stabbed as he walked home from a mosque in Birmingham. “I do feel vulnerable… and it does affect my behaviour,” she said. “I become more fearful and avoid going to certain places that I feel might be a risk to my safety. And especially within certain times, I would avoid walking within those areas.”

One reason for these indirect effects is that people feel more empathy for victims who come from their own community. When they learned about a fellow Muslim, or LGBT person, being abused because of their identity, they put themselves in the victims’ shoes and felt something of what they must have felt during the attack. This made them feel angry on the victims’ behalf, but also threatened and fearful that they could also become a victim. These feelings can lead people to change their behaviour – for example, using social media to raise awareness of such attacks – with the effects lasting three months or longer in many cases.

Dr Jenny Paterson at the SHCP launch on 12th January 2018

The University of Sussex research demonstrated these effects through experiments in which participants read newspaper articles about someone being attacked. All the articles were identical, except that some described the attacks as anti-LGBT or Islamophobic hate crimes, while the others portrayed the attacks as random, with no mention of hate as the motivation. Those who read about hate crimes reported more empathy for the victim which, in turn, made them more likely to express feelings of anger or anxiety than those who read about the non-hate crimes. The strength of their responses suggest that hate crimes can have a greater impact on the victims and those in the wider community than otherwise comparable attacks which are not motivated by hate.

Among the Muslim and LGBT people who took part in the study, simply knowing someone who had been a victim of a hate crime was linked to them having less positive attitudes towards the police, the Crown Prosecution Service and the government. They were also more likely to support laws designed to enhance the penalties for hate crime and different methods of policing – for example, special procedures for dealing with victims and more police in the community. Most had not had any contact with the police about a hate crime, but members of the Muslim group who had been in touch with them were less likely to believe that they would respond effectively than those who had not had contact. During one interview, a Muslim man said: “For me it seems that a lot of the police force come from a certain background, and sometimes that’s why I think they won’t take it [Islamophobic hate crime] seriously.”

Dr Mark Walters from the School of Law presenting at the SHCP launch

Attitudes towards different forms of justice used to deal with those responsible for hate crime were also investigated. More than six out of 10 Muslim and LGBT people who took part in the study said that instead of an enhanced prison sentence, they preferred restorative justice – in which victims meet or communicate with the perpetrators in order to explain the impact of their crime and agree a form of reparation. This, they believed, was more likely to be an effective way to repair the harm caused by hate and prejudice. One LGBT person said: “I’m not sure that just sending somebody to prison… is going to change somebody’s attitude… Whereas [restorative justice is] a much better route to be able to understand the impact that their behaviour has had on somebody.”

The question for police and politicians now is what they can do to reduce the impact of hate crimes. One step might be to investigate measures – like restorative justice – that aim to address the harm to both the victim and community. Another might be to ensure greater use of community impact statements in criminal trials. With tens of thousands of people affected each year, there are many in the Muslim and LGBT communities, and other parts of society, who will be keen to know the answer.


This analysis piece was commissioned by the BBC and edited by Duncan Walker. 

Prof Rupert Brown, Prof Mark Walters and Dr Jenny Paterson are at the University of Sussex and are members of the Sussex Hate Crime Project, which was funded by the Leverhulme Trust.

The project recruited more than 2,000 LGBT and 1,000 Muslim people from a wide number of sources, including specific community groups and charities -for example, Stonewall, GALOP, the Muslim Council of Britain and LGBT and Muslim university groups.

Posted in Uncategorized

Statement for Excellence in Research Degrees

By Dr Zoë Hopkins

Trite as it sounds, I can remember exactly where I was and what I was doing when I became interested in autism and language. Throughout my undergraduate years (as a student of English Literature, rather than Psychology), I was employed as a support worker on the fabulous Artz and Sportz+ scheme (, for children with additional needs. At a sports workshop, I was supporting a child with autism who had echolalia; he would repeat words and phrases that I said, over and over again, and it was really difficult for us to hold a conversation with each other. The boy’s use of language suggested to me that, in conversation, there is an ‘optimum’ amount of language repetition between speakers: too much copying might be disruptive (as it was in the sports workshop), but not using any of the same words as a partner might convey that s/he wasn’t being listened to. This issue gets even trickier within the context of autism, which is associated with both under- and over-imitation (of language, actions, etc.)

Against this backdrop, language imitation in children with autism became the focus of my Masters thesis at Sussex. As a student on the MSc in Experimental Psychology – an intensive, year-long conversion degree – I was attached to the ChaTLab (, where I spent a year studying and hearing presentations about children with autism, and their difficulties with social interaction. When I left Sussex in 2011, it was to move to Singapore, where I spent six months as an intern in the autism team of the Child Guidance Clinic (CGC), as part of the Institute of Mental Health ( While working at the CGC, I supported two clinicians to run social skills classes for boys with autism; this experience in particular made me think about why conversation doesn’t always run smoothly for people with autism and their social partners.

From Singapore, I returned to Sussex in 2012, to take up an EPSRC-funded PhD scholarship in the ChaTLab, entitled ‘Meeting of Minds in Conversation’. My PhD thesis – co-supervised by Drs Nicola Yuill (Psychology) and Bill Keller (Informatics) – considered the conversational difficulties of children with autism from a language-processing perspective, drawing on theories of linguistic alignment. Alignment is the tendency for speakers to imitate each other’s language in conversation: it is widely observed in the conversations of typical adults, and is associated with more effective and satisfying interactions (c.f., e.g., Fusaroli et al., 2012). Furthermore, alignment may be influenced by ‘audience design’ (=tailoring speech to take a listener into account) and social-affective goals; these are recognised areas of impairment for children with autism. In my thesis, I report three experiments, which consider whether atypical alignment could explain why children with autism might find conversation difficult, and in turn why their social partners might find their interactions odd and unrewarding.  My thesis will be available online soon (

Having survived my PhD viva in February 2016, I have since been working as an Assistant Psychologist at the Disabilities Trust, in a residential service for adults with autism and learning disabilities ( I continue to be intrigued by conversation in autism, and to think about what can be done to support people with autism with their social interaction. Happily, I was offered a post-doctoral position at Edinburgh University, which will allow me to pursue some of the outstanding questions from my PhD. In April 2017, I joined an ESRC-funded project – ‘Conversational Alignment in Children with an Autism Spectrum Condition and Typical Children – led by Professor Holly Branigan; Nicola Yuill is a co-investigator on this project, which will enable me to maintain my connections with the Sussex ChaT Lab.

I am very excited about the new chapter in my academic career, and welcome enquiries from anyone regarding my research interests. Please consult either my Sussex or Edinburgh University profile pages for contact details.


Academic funding:

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) – doctoral research position

Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) – post-doctoral research position


Relevant publications:

My research has involved both experimental paradigms and natural language processing methodology.

Hopkins, Z., Yuill, N., & Keller, B. (2016). Children with autism align syntax in natural conversation. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(2), 347–370. doi:10.1017/S0142716414000599


Tagged with: , ,
Posted in Faculty research, PhD research, Research

Why do bystanders justify the use of violence by protesters?

By Patricio Saavedra Morales

Recently, the UN Human Rights Office published an extensive report about human rights violations and abuses during protests occurring in Venezuela from 1st of April to 31st July 2017.  In the document, UN officers accused the Venezuelan police force of excessive use of force during protests and illegal detentions of both protesters and political opponents. Furthermore, the report claimed that the right of peaceful assembly has been systematically violated, and the protesters (as well as journalists who have tried to report protests) are treated as ‘terrorist’ and ‘enemies of the state’ by government authorities. In this context, the report argues some protesters resorted to the use of violence as a method to confront the action of the police and pro-government groups.

However, the use of violence during protests is neither a new issue nor exclusive feature of Venezuelans. Social psychologists from different countries have demonstrated that emotionsthe perceived efficacy of violent actions, or the lack of collective efficacy could be antecedents for people consider getting involved in violent actions during protests. Moreover, an outstanding approach based on identity dynamics and crowd psychology has proposed that the use of violence by members of a crowd (as in protests) follows a specific logic where violent tactics are legitimised due to the indiscriminate actions of the police, and a subsequent change of group representations to ‘us’ (protesters) and ‘they’ (the police). Hence, ‘violent actions’ can be justified as self-defence or retaliation by the protesters (as a group) when they see other group (the police) as an enemy because of the use of transgressive actions against them.

Despite the findings mentioned above, both the influence of the perceived political context on bystanders (the extent to which people perceive their government and the police restricting or facilitating protests) and how these bystanders perceive that other people give legitimacy to protests have barely been explored as antecedents of the justification of the use of violence by protesters. To address these topics, we carried out four quantitative studies using samples from Chile and the UK for each of them.

A few brief words are necessary about the countries involved in the studies before describing the results. On one hand, Chilean historian Gabriel Salazar has claimed that the use of violence in protests and by social movements has been present across Chilean history to try to achieve social change. The same scholar has also argued that in spite of the presence of popular violence in their history, many Chilean people have often focused their efforts on condemning its use (because of its assumed ‘irrationality’ and supposed criminality) rather than trying to understand why or when some people have considered it as a valid approach. On the other hand, the UK (specifically England) has seen episodes such as the ‘Battle of Westminster’ in 1988 and the riots in Tottenham and Hackneyduring 2011, where the actions of the police against protesters operated as a trigger for a series of events in which the use of violence became legitimized. Regarding these facts, a group of scholars from this country have developed a scientific approach to understanding the occurrence of riots based on social identity dynamics instead of assuming that crowd’s actions are a product of pathological irrationality.

With respect to the main findings of our four studies, we demonstrated that people from the UK and Chile were more willing to justify the use of violence by protesters when they perceived their political context as more restricted in relation to protests. We also found that besides the general perception about political context, police transgressions are especially relevant for Chileans, compared to people in the UK, in their legitimisation of the use of violence during a protest.

Another significant result of our studies was that when people perceived their political context as more open to protests, they were more likely to also think that other people would legitimise the implementation of protests in the streets (a process called meta-perception). The latter is relevant because the perceptions about another important actor within the political context – other people – were included in the equation beyond institutional actors. Interestingly, we also found that for British people the perception of what other people thought about protests was a relevant factor to justify the use of violence by protesters, but this was not the case for the Chilean sample.

In conclusion, our results suggest that what the government authorities and the police do in relation to protests is an important factor that people evaluate in forming attitudes to different protest activities. At the same time, we think the special relevance that police transgressions have for Chileans may be due to historical antecedents (during the fascist dictatorship, Chilean police actively repressed and killed people during protests), and/or the unnecessary or excessive use of force against protesters frequently alleged by international organizations as Amnesty Internationaland Human Right Watch. A third hypothesis which could explain the importance of police behaviour in the justification of the use of violence in Chile is the massive use of paramilitary policing to manage protests in that country. Paramilitary policing is characterized by the use of water cannons, rubber bullets, and tear gas against protesters, as well as an extensive control of public space by the police force. Although recent psychological literature has demonstrated that paramilitary policing has a negative impact on the protesters’ trust in the police and the fact that policing approaches based on coercion could help to escalate violence between the police and crowd members, it seems that Chilean authorities have allowed the police force to retain its old and repressive tactics without considering non-coercive methods before crowds events and protests (Some remarkable examples of the use of a non-coercive approach during crowds events have been carried out in the UK.)

However, a topic still unsolved is the relevance that the British (but not Chileans) give to the opinion of others for the justification of violence during protests: could this difference between countries be explained by cultural background discrepancies? Which specific cultural aspects would be behind it? Whatever the answer to these questions is, the big picture obtained across the studies matches with what other scholars have suggested on the use of violence by social movements and in collective action, which is that it follows a specific logic characterized by the emergence of new norms due to the illegitimate interaction between protesters and other groups (as the police). These new norms of interaction might mean that violent tactics (which could have been considered illegitimate in the past) become a valid strategy of action to confront or retaliate against police transgression instead of being caused by people’s ‘irrationality’ or ‘criminality’. In line with this, we suggest that knowing the extent in which people perceive their political context as open to allowing and facilitating protests would be a new piece of the puzzle to get a better understanding of the use of violence during these kind of events. Additionally, we propose the rationale described above would not be exclusive to those who actively participate in collective action but also it can be extended to bystanders (general public) who are not necessarily directly involved in the actions but can support the use of violent tactics by protesters after forming an opinion of their own political context.

Independently of the claims on international intervention in the Venezuelan crisis, we suggest that the approach described above might be applied to explain the use of violence during protests in that country. If we follow the UN report, we might conjecture that some people have justified the use of violence in the streets because of both the government restrictions to implement peaceful protests and the systematic police misbehaviour against the protesters. The latter would be aggravated whether we also consider that government authorities have explicitly considered protesters ‘as terrorists’ and sent detained protesters to military courts. Nevertheless, less clear is whether Venezuelans have considered the opinion of other people to justify the use of violent tactics in the streets. At the moment, through the press, we have just some hints that protesters (especially younger ones) perceive that the views of other people legitimise their presence in the streets to fight against the pro-government groups and the police.


This post was originally published on 7th September 2017 in the blog of the Crowds and Identities Research Group, led by Dr John Drury.


Tagged with: , ,
Posted in PhD research, Research

Welcome to the School of Psychology

As we start the new academic year, I am delighted as Head of School to welcome our new cohort of Undergraduate, Masters and Doctoral students to the School of Psychology at Sussex, and to welcome back our current Undergraduate and Doctoral students. I hope you have all had a fantastic summer and are ready to hit the ground running in your studies. For those of you just starting, you are joining one of the best research-led Schools of Psychology in the UK (10th overall in the last Research Excellence Framework). For those returning, we are delighted that our performance in the National Student Survey continues to show our excellence, with a 92% score for Overall Satisfaction in the 2017 NSS results.

The summer is a busy time for academic faculty, where as well as preparing new courses and revising our lectures, we are immersed in our research. Many of the faculty are presenting events at the British Science Festival, which is being held in Brighton from the 5-9 September 2017 ( A perfect way to prepare for your studies and to get a feel for the people who will be guiding you through your degree would be to come along to as many sessions as you can, including:

One of our new innovations for the coming year is to assign our incoming undergraduates to ‘houses’, designed to provide a cohesive social environment in which you can interact with your peers, students from other years, and academic and professional staff in smaller groups. Sometimes, one can feel a bit lost in a large cohort of students: the houses are designed to provide a welcoming environment so that you can feel at home while at university. The heads of houses will arrange social events as well as coordinating the academic advisor scheme, so that you can make the very best use of your academic advisors.

If you have any suggestions for further improvements you would like us to make, pass them on to the Psychology student reps and we will do our best to act on them. We are also upping our game in use of social media, with regular blogs, Twitter feeds and Facebook posts. We would love to get stuff from students – please send material to Mar Balboa Carbon ( who is coordinating our social media presence.

Don’t forget that it is really important for you to keep in regular contact with your academic adviser throughout the year; not only can they help you to deal with problems as they arise (e.g., understanding feedback, assistance with writing and analysis, advice about personal issues), but the more they know about you, the better equipped they will be to write that all-important reference for when you apply for jobs and further study.

I hope the coming academic year is productive and fun for all of you (and us!).

Best wishes

Tom Ormerod

Head of School of Psychology


Tagged with: , , , ,
Posted in Uncategorized