Former Sussex student Juan Leopoldo Martinez explains why investigative journalism really does need to be at the forefront of the anti-corruption fight
When facing state, judicial or parliamentary inertia or a lack of effectiveness in fighting corruption, investigative journalism is one of the main tools societies have left to fight graft. However, investigative journalists face two main problems when trying to do justice to this honourable aim.
The first is the overflow of information in societies that receive important news minute by minute. This becomes an obstacle to in-depth research; there is no time for details, only for the next major event that happens somewhere in the world.
The second problem is more complex: the threats against those who investigate the events, for those journalists who go beyond the known or told facts, for whom it’s not enough to take the statements made by politicians and public figures, but who want instead to reach the truth behind the discourse. By pursuing this truth, they touch important interests of powerful people who are not willing to accept any risks to their business, especially if their activities are dishonest or if disclosing certain information would damage their reputation.
Reporters Without Borders have reported that, during 2017, at least 47 journalists have been killed worldwide while 183 social communication professionals have been imprisoned. To those, we should also add the risks taken by citizens who help journalists and media assistants; in this group, at least 13 have been murdered and 182 put in jail. There are no statistics on the amount of intimidation.
One recent example of such horrific crimes against journalists is the assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia, one of the journalists who led the investigation of the Panama Papers and the corruption that it brought to light within her country, Malta. Even when she informed the police around two weeks before her murder that she was receiving death threats, security forces were not able to provide the protection needed and her life ended tragically.
The threats against investigative journalists are not just based on violence. Reporters Without Borders also publishes the annual World Press Freedom Index, a measure that considers several factors to determine “the level of freedom available for journalists”. By their analysis, the level of freedom has worsened considerably even in democratic systems. But the most disturbing fact, as per their report, is that the attacks on the media and newspersons are increasing worldwide.
Despite the danger, the risks reporters take are valuable. Investigative journalism is a key factor in the fight against corruption, with the capability to prompt real action by the state to prosecute graft or to stimulate collective action initiatives when sectors of society consider that something must be done against such problems.
Investigative journalism is essential to anti-corruption, and is often the last bastion of scrutiny in the most corrupt environments. It is a fundamental instrument for good governance and a pillar of democracy. From that, it can be understood that investigative journalism is a fundamental factor to the improvement of the democratic system. But for investigative journalists to play their role, it is essential that journalists -and the media- are protected and free. Society should make efforts to promote the kind of journalism that brings positives outcomes as put public resource management under surveillance, and all the subsequent collective benefits that such actions involve.
Juan Leopoldo Martinez
Juan Leopoldo Martinez studied for an MA in Corruption and Governance at the University of Sussex in 2016-17. Previously, he graduated with BA in Journalism and MSc in Organizational Communication in Venezuelan universities. His work experience includes an internship at the APPG on Anti-Corruption of the UK Parliament, PR Director at the regional parliament of Carabobo in Venezuela and advisor at the same institution. He has a background working for private media, political and not-for-profit organizations.